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generate second/foreign language learning and later functions as an ongoing driving force that helps in sustaining the long and usually laborious journey of acquiring an SL/FL. Without sufficient motivation, they argue, even individuals with the most remarkable abilities will not be able to accomplish long-term goals, and neither appropriate curricula nor good teaching will be enough to ensure student achievement.
2.5. Types of Motivation and their Role in SL/FL Acquisition
There are various types of motivation that control human behaviour as identified and discussed by many scholars and psychologists. In spite of the different terms and expressions used to refer to the different types of motivation in the SL/FL learning, these types can overlap and integrate as in many situations and particular cases motivation can be intrinsic and integrative (or instrumental) at the same time. The best-known types ofL2 motivation are listed below.
2.5.1. Integrative Motivation
This type of motivation was the most thoroughly discussed and explained of all components in Gardner’s (1985) socio-educational model of second language acquisition. According to Gardner and Lambert (1972) and Lambert (1974), integrative motivation involves an interest in learning an L2 because of a sincere and personal interest in the people and culture represented by the other language group. In addition, Dörnyei and Skehan (2003) clarify that a learner with an integrative orientation is usually characterised by the desire to learn the second language, a positive disposition toward the L2 group, and a desire to interact with, and even become similar to, valued members of that community. Furthermore, Crookes and Schmidt (1991) emphasises that integrative motivation is identified with positive attitudes toward the target language group and the potential for integrating into that group, or at the very least an interest in meeting and interacting with members of the target language group. As conceived in his socio-educational model of second language acquisition, Gardner regards integrative motivated individuals as those motivated to learn the second language because of a desire or willingness to identify with the other language community, and who tend to evaluate the learning situation positively.
Gardner (2000) proposes that the total complex of integrativeness attitudes toward the learning situation and motivational attributes is referred to as integrative motivation (see Figure 8).

Figure 2.8. Gardner’s Conceptualisation of the Integrative Motivation (Gardner, 1986, p.87)
Gardner (2001b) has distinguished integrativeness from integrative motivation by declaring that integrativeness, along with attitudes toward the learning situation, are seen as supporters for motivation, while it is motivation that is responsible for achievement in the second language learning. He clarifies that someone may demonstrate high levels of integrativeness and/or very positive attitudes toward the learning situation, but if these are not linked with motivation to learn the language, they will not be particularly highly related to achievement. According to him, a student exhibiting high levels of motivation that are not supported by high levels of integrativeness and/or favourable attitudes toward the learning situation may not exhibit these high levels of motivation consistently.
Gardner (1985) has asserted that the integrative motive plays a determining role in the acquisition of the skills of the foreign language since it orients students to make social contacts with members of the cultural community and thereby learn these linguistic skills that characterise that group. He also shows that integrative motivation was found to be more invariably related to L2 achievement than instrumental motivation, which emerges as a significant factor only in some specific situations. Gardner (1960) hypothesises that motivation to acquire a second language is dependent upon an integrative orientation, and this implies that individuals seeking to learn a language for instrumental reasons will not manifest and maintain a high degree of motivation over extended periods of language study.
2.5.2. Instrumental Motivation
Gardner and Lambert (1959) and Clément and colleagues (1994) have stated that instrumental motivation relates to the desire to learn the L2 for a particular purpose, such as getting a job or fulfilling educational requirements. Gardner (1960) has proposed that beside integrative orientation, there is also instrumental orientation in which students’ primary aim in studying the language appears to be an interest in acquiring sufficient knowledge of the language for its instrumental value, such as for school credits, job opportunities, etc. Crookes and Schmidt (1991) argue that instrumental motivation refers to more functional reasons for learning a language like getting a better job or a promotion, or to pass a required examination.
Regardless of the fact that integrative motivation has been demonstrated to be more strongly related to L2 achievement, learners with instrumental reasons for learning an L2 can also be successful. Instrumental motivation appears to be even much more powerful than integrative motivation in some specific contexts where learners have little or no interest in the target-language culture and few or no opportunities to interact with its members (Ellis, 1994).
Instrumental motivation also works better when providing learners with incentives like money. These incentives may aid learning by making learners apply extra efforts, but according to Gardner and Maclntyre (1991) the effects of such incentives may cease as soon as the rewards stop, which is seen as a major disadvantage of instrumental motivation.
2.5.3. Intrinsic Motivation
Due to the fact that intrinsic motivation is actually at the core of all the other types of motivation, a description for many aspects of this kind of motivation follows. Another rational reason for giving a bit more attention to the importance of intrinsic motivation is that it is considered to be effective in the educational settings and thus closely related to the current cognitive stage of L2 motivation research.
Some researchers like Combs (1982), Purkey and Schmidt (1987), and Purkey and Stanley (1991) have defined intrinsic motivation as enhancing people’s self-concept by engaging them in activities that motivate them. Most theorists, though, like Malone and Lepper (1987) have conceptualised intrinsic motivation in a broad and simpler way in terms of what people will do without external inducement. According to other points of view, intrinsic motivation can be defined as “motivation to engage in an activity for its own sake,” (Pintrich & Schunk 1996, p. 257). Ryan and Deci (2000, p.70) conceptualised intrinsic motivation as “the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenges, to extend and exercise one’s capacities, to explore, and to learn.” Liuolienė and Metiūnienė (2006) have proposed that intrinsically motivating activities are often equated with fun or enjoyment or activities that students would perform of their own volition.
Vallerand (1997) has identified three subtypes of intrinsic motivation as follow: a) intrinsic motivation to learn, which is engaging in an activity for the pleasure of understanding something new, satisfying one’s curiosity and exploring the world; b) intrinsic motivation for achievement, which is engaging in an activity for the satisfaction of surpassing oneself, coping with challenges, and accomplishing something; and c) intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation, which is the engagement in an activity to experience pleasant sensation. The Intrinsic Needs of Students
There are some innate psychological needs of students that need to be satisfied in order to promote their motivation. Raffini (1996) emphasises the importance of some of these needs, like autonomy and self-determination, competence, belonging and relatedness, and self-esteem. He states that “teachers can have a powerful influence over the intrinsic motivation of their students by arranging conditions in their psycho academic needs for autonomy, competence, relatedness, self-esteem, and enjoyment,” (p. ix). Raffini adds that students need to control their own decisions (autonomy); to do things that help them feel successful (competence); to feel part of something larger than themselves (belonging and relatedness); to feel good about who they are (self-esteem); and to find pleasure in what they do (involvement and enjoyment). The Need for Autonomy and Self-Determination
The need for autonomy is one of the innate psychological needs that the influential Self- Determination Theory (SDT) maintains as an essential aspect of human motivation. Deci and Ryan (2000) emphasise that field studies in schools as well as laboratory experiments showed, in real-world settings, that providing autonomy support to students was associated with more positive outcomes, including greater intrinsic motivation, increased satisfaction, and enhanced well-being. Deci and Ryan (1985) had earlier proposed that all human beings have an innate need to feel autonomous. They also believe that the desire for self-determination is realised when individuals have the capacity to choose as they interact with their environment — when they engage in activities because they want to, not because they have to.
According to Raffini (1993), it appears that students’ satisfaction of the need for autonomy is a matter of gaining power and control over their lives. This process suggests that all students have a natural resistance to some orders like Stand up! Sit down! Be quiet! Stop talking! The Need for Competence
Raffini (1996) has proposed that in order to increase the intrinsic motivation of students it is important to create an environment in which students can discover that their

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