پایان نامه با کلید واژگان listening، Dr.، Introduction………………………………………………………………………

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ALITY OF PRESENTATION OF THE THESIS SUBMITTED BY MOJGAN AMINAEI ENTITLED:

THE IMPACT OF CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS BASED
PRONUNCIATION TEACHING ON IRANINAN EFL LEARNERS’ LISTENING COMPREHENSION

AS PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M.A. IN TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE, ARE ACCEPTED AND APPROVED BY THE DISSERTATION COMMITTEE:

Supervisor: Dr. Shahrokh Jahandar Signature
Examiner: Dr. Masomeh Arjmandi Signature
Examiner: Dr. Morteza Khodabandehlou Signature

Research Vice President:
Dr.Pour Ahmad

Signature………… Date…………..

To my beloved husband whose help, patience and encouragement allowed me to move forward.

Acknowledgment
Completion of this thesis would not have been possible without the invaluable assistance and encouragement of Dr. Shahrokh Jahandar. It is impossible to adequately thank Professor Jahandar for his perceptive insight into the nature of the research problem, insightful guidance throughout this research, willingness and patience to help me at every stage of the completion of this thesis. In this demanding process, I was also lucky enough to have the support of several people. First of all, I gratefully would like to specially thank Dr. Masomeh Arjmandi for her faith in me, her inspiration and encouragement from the first day I came into this Master’s Program until my graduation. I would like to thank Dr. Nojabaei, who helped me in planning statistical analysis. I would also like to thank the examiner Dr. Morteza Khodabandehlou for his valuable point of view in this thesis. I would like to express my heartfelt appreciation to Maryam Monfared for never leaving me alone in this challenging journey. She never left me without an answer to my never-ending questions. My special thanks also go to: My dearest teacher Mr. Maghami for helping and supporting me in whatever I have in English language, to all the members of the Iran Language Institute (ILI) for their constant help and support throughout my master’s study, to all the students who participated in this study. Last but not least, I owe my genuine, deepest gratitude to my family for their everlasting belief in me, for always encouraging me. I am grateful to my sister and my brother Maryam and Amir Aminaei for being the best sister and brother in life and for their endless assistance throughout this storm.

Table of content

Title Page
1
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………..…
3
Chapter 1: Introduction……………………………………………………………………
3
1.0. Introduction………………………………………………………………………
4
1.1. Theoretical Framework……………………………………………………………
6
1.2. Statement of the Problem…………………………………………………………
9
1.3. Significance of the Study…………………………………………………………
10
1.4. Purpose of the Study………………………………………………………………
11
1.5. Research Question of the Study…………………………………………………..
11
1.6. Hypotheses of the study…………………………………………………………..
11
1.7. Definitions of Key Terms…………………………………………………………
12
1.8. Summary………………………………………………………………………………..
16
Chapter 2: Literature Review………………………………………………………..
16
2.0. Introduction………………………………………………………………………
19
2.1. History of listening in ELT……………………………………………………….
23
2.2. Definition of listening by different researchers…………………………………
26
2.3. The importance of listening………………………………………………………
29
2.4. Why is listening difficult…………………………………………………………
32
2.5. How to develop listening…………………………………………………………
35
2.5.1. Bottom-up process in listening……………………………………………..
37
2.5.2. Top down process in listening …………………………………………….
39
2.5.3. Interactive processing in listening………………………………………….
40
2.6. Material for teaching listening……………………………………………………
42
2.7. Designing listening activity for the classroom……………………………………

44
2.8. Some obvious and latent problems in L2 listening comprehension………………
45
2.8.1. Fast Speech (Speed of Delivery)……………………………………………
45
2.8.2. Distortion of word boundaries………………………………………………
45
2.8.3.Weak form……………………………………………………………………
46
2.8.4. Elision……………………………………………………………………….
46
2.8.5. Assimilation…………………………………………………………………
47
2.8.6. Gemination…………………………………………………………………
47
2.8.7. Stress and Rhythm……………………………………………………………..
48
2.8.8. Intonation……………………………………………………………………
49
2.9. History of pronunciation in ELT…………………………………………………
53
2.10. Definition and importance of pronunciation……………………………………
54
2.11. Components of pronunciation…………………………………………………..
56
2.11.1. Segmental features of pronunciation………………………………………
58
2.11.2. Suprasegmental features of pronunciation………………………………..
61
2.12. Teaching pronunciation…………………………………………………………
65
2.13. Factors influencing pronunciation learning……………………………………..
65
2.13.1. The role of mother tongue…………………………………………………
66
2.13.2. Age factor………………………………………………………………….
67
2.13.3. Learners attitude and sense of identity……………………………………
68
2.13.4. Motivation…………………………………………………………………
68
2.13.5. Amount and type of prior pronunciation instruction………………………
69
2.14. Pronunciation and contrastive analysis………………………………………….
71
2.15. Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis………………………………………………..
73
2.16. Developing listening by teaching pronunciation………………………………..
74
2.17. Summary…………………………………………………………………………….
75
Chapter 3: Methodology…………………………………………………………….

75
3.0. Introduction………………………………………………………………………
75
3.1. The design of the study……………………………………………………………
76
3.2. Setting and Participants…………………………………………………………..
78
3.3. Instruments and Materials………………………………………………………..
79
3.4. Data collection procedures……………………………………………………….
83
3.5. Methods of Analyzing Data………………………………………………………
84
3.6. Summary………………………………………………………………………….
85
Chapter 4: Data Analysis……………………………………………………………
85
4.0. Introduction………………………………………………………………………
86
4.1. Data analysis and findings………………………………………………………..
90
4.2. Summary………………………………………………………………………….
92
Chapter 5: Discussion………………………………………………………………..
92
5.0. Introduction………………………………………………………………………
93
5.1. General discussion………………………………………………………………..
93
5.1.1. The experimental group…………………………………………………….
94
5.1.2.The control group……………………………………………………………
95
5.1.3. Difference between the developments of both groups……………………..
97
5.2. Pedagogical Implications…………………………………………………………
99
5.3. Limitations of the study…………………………………………………………..
100
5.4. Suggestion for further research……………………………………………………
100
5.5. Summary………………………………………………………………………….
101
REFERENCE……………………………………………………………………………….
115
Appendix………………………………………………………………………………
116
Appendix A: OPT Test………………………………………………………………..
123
Appendix B: Pre/ Post Tests…………………………………………………………..

132
Appendix C: Treatment……………………………………………………………….

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4-1.The correlation coefficient between the random variables of listening comprehension ability (pre-test) and the independent variables…….
87
Table 4-2: Statistical characteristics of the dependent variable (post-test) of listening comprehension ability in the control and experimental groups…..
88
Table 4-3: Paired T-test to compare the mean difference between pre-test and post-test experimental and control groups…………………………………….

88
Table 4-4: Mean and the rounded mean of listening comprehension ability dependent variable…………………………………………………………….
89
Table 4-5: The correlation coefficient of listening comprehension ability with removing mutual effect in the experimental and control groups………………
89

LIST OF FIGURES

56
Figure1. Features of Pronunciation…………………………………………………
57
Figure2. English Phonemic Chart………………………………………………….
73
Figure3. Three versions of Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis………………………
76
Figure4. Schematic representation of the design…………………………………..
77
Figure5. Participants of the study…………………………………………………..
81
Figure6. Overly of Persian consonants on the English Inventory………………….
81
Figure7. English and Persian vowels………………………………………………
82
Figure8. Errors and problems by EFL learners…………………………………….
83
Figure9. Data Collection Procedures………………………………………………
87
Figure 10: Listening comprehension ability of control and experimental groups
90
Figure 11: The post-test means of paragraph writing ability in the experimental and control groups………………………………………………………………….

Abstract
The present study has made an attempt to investigate the impact of contrastive-based pronunciation teaching on listening comprehension ability of Iranian EFL learners. Based on it, this study set out to focus on the phonological feature (segmental feature) and the pronunciation errors which are made by Iranian learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and the impact of such transfers and errors on their listening comprehension ability. To achieve this purpose, the researcher conducted an OPT test (Oxford Placement Test) to homogenize students. Then 40 female EFL learners attending general English course at Iran Language Institute (ILI) in Rasht, Iran whose score fell between 1SD±Mean were chosen to conduct the study. The participants were divided into experimental and control group.
Before starting the training, a pretest was applied to all students, and the treatment started the week after. Unlike the control group,

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