پایان نامه با موضوع Creativity، learning، Figure

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e and appreciation to my mother, my brother, and my sisters whose prayers, love and best wishes were a source of inspiration, encouragement and motivation for me as I was completing this study.
ABSTRACT

The thrust of the current study was to investigate the relationship among EFL learners’ use of language learning strategies (SILL), learning style preferences (PLSP), and creativity (CR). To this end, a group of 148 male and female learners, between the ages of 19 and 32, majoring in English Translation and English Literature at Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran were randomly selected and were given three questionnaires: the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) questionnaire by Oxford (1990), the Perceptual Learning Style Preference (PLSP) questionnaire by Reid (1984), and a questionnaire of creativity (ACT) by O’Neil, Abedi, and Spielberger (1992). The relationship among language learning strategies, learning style preferences, and creativity was investigated using Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient. Preliminary analyses were performed to ensure no violation of the assumptions of normality, linearity and homoscedasticity. The results of this study indicated that there were significant and positive correlations between EFL learners’ learning strategies and learning style preferences (r = 0.83, p 0.05), learning strategies and creativity (r=0.73, p 0.05), and learning style preferences and creativity (r = 0.88, p 0.05). Also, there were significant and positive correlations among different language learning strategies and learning style preferences, different language learning strategies and creativity, and different learning style preferences and creativity. Running multiple regression showed that social strategy predicted 79.9 percent of scores on creativity, cognitive strategy increased the predictive power to 82.1 percent, affective strategy added up the percentage of prediction to 82.6 percent, and finally the metacognitive strategy leveled the prediction to 93.2 percent. Also, results of multiple regression for learning styles showed Kinesthetic learning style is the only variable entering the model to predict 93.1 percent of scores on creativity. It can be concluded that the obtained results may help EFL teachers and educators to bear in mind the benefits of developing their learners’ learning strategies and learning style preferences when dealing with promoting creativity in learners.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
DEDICATION IV
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS IV
ABSTRACT v.
TABLE OF CONTENTS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..VI
LISTS OF TABLES IX
LISTS OF FIGURES XI
LISTS OF ABBREVIATIONS XII
CHAPTER I: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE 1
1.1Introduction 2
1.2 Statement of the Problem 7
1.3 Statement of the Research Questions 8
1.4 Statement of the Research Hypotheses 10
1.5 Definition of Key Terms 11
1.5.1 Language Learning Strategies 11
1.5.2 Learning Style preferences 12
1.5.3 Creativity 12
1.6 Significance of the Study 13
1.7 Limitations, Delimitations and Assumptions 16
1.7.1 Limitations 16
1.7.2 Delimitations 18
1.7.3 Assumptions 19
CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE 20
2.1 Introduction 21
2.2 Language Learning Strategies 21
2.2.1 Definitions of Language Learning Strategies 22
2.2.2 Background of Research on Language Learning Strategies 25
2.2.3 Taxonomies of Language Learning Strategies 26
2.2.4 Method to Investigate Learning Strategies 35
2.2.5 Researches on Learning Strategies 38
2.3 Language Learning Style 43
2.3.1 What is Learning Style? 43
2.3.2 Development of Learning Style 45
2.3.3 Background of Research on Learning Styles 54
2.3.4 Fundamentals of Learning Styles 55
2.3.5 Definitions of Learning Styles 56
2.3.6 Researches on Learning Styles 60
2.3.7 Differences between Language Learning Styles and Strategies 65
2.4 Creativity 66
2.4.1 The History of Creativity 66
2.4.2 The Background of Creativity 68
2.4.3 Attributes of Creativity 70
2.4.4 Barriers to Creativity 72
2.4.5 Promoting Creativity 73
2.4.6 Important Cognitive Processes Involved in Creativity 75
2.4.7 Researches on Creativity 77
CHAPTER III: METHOD 80
3.1 Introduction 81
3.2 Participants 81
3.3 Instrumentation 82
3.3.1 Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) 82
3.3.2 The Perceptual Learning Style Preference (PLSP) 86
3.3.3 Creativity Questionnaire (ACT) 89
3.4 Procedure 93
3.5 Design 95
3.6 Statistical Analyses 95
CHAPTER IV: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 97
4.1 Introduction 98
4.2 Results of the Study 100
4.2.1 Testing Assumptions 100
4.3 Testing the Null Hypotheses 108
4.3.1 Testing the First Null Hypothesis 108
4.3.2 Testing the Second Null Hypothesis 112
4.3.3 Testing the Third Null Hypothesis 115
4.3.4 Testing the Fourth Null Hypothesis 119
4.3.5 Testing the Fifth Null Hypothesis 123
4.3.6 Testing the Sixth Null Hypothesis 127
4.3.7 Testing the Seventh Null Hypothesis 132
4.3.8 Testing the Eighth Null Hypothesis 136
4.4 Construct Validity 139
4.5 Conclusion 142
CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS 146
5.1 Introduction 147
5.2 Procedure and Summary of the Findings 147
5.3 Discussion 153
5.4 Pedagogical Implications 158
5.4.1 Implication for EFL Teachers 158
5.4.2 Implication for EFL Learners 160
5.4.3 Implications for EFL Syllabus Designers, Curriculum Developers and Material Producers 161
5.5. Suggestions for Further Research 162
REFERENCES 164
APPENDICES 184

LISTS OF TABLES

Table 3.1: Reliability Index of SILL and Its Subcomponents ……………………….….…….…87
Table 3.2: Reliability Index of PLSP and Its Subcomponents ……………………..…….……….90
Table 3.3: Subcomponents and Items of the Persian Creativity Test …………………..…………..93
Table 3.4: Reliability Index of Creativity Questionnaire………………………………………….94
Table 4.1: Descriptive Statistics of SILL………………………………..………………..….……102
Table 4.2: Descriptive Statistics of PLSP……………………………………………………….104
Table 4.3: Descriptive Statistics of ACT……………………………………………………….105
Table 4.4: Correlations between Language Learning Strategies, Learning Style Preferences
and Creativity..………………………………………………………………………110
Table 4.5: Correlations between Subcomponents of Language Learning Strategies and Learning
Styles Preferences……………………………………………………………………114
Table 4.6: Correlation between EFL Learners’ Language Learning Strategies and Creativity…117
Table 4.7: Correlations between EFL Learners’ learning Style Preferences.and Creativity…… 121
Table 4.8: Model Summary; Regression Analysis Predicting Creativity by Using Components of Learning Style Preferences and Language Learning Strategies…………….……125
Table 4.9: ANOVA Test of Significance of Regression Model Predicting Creativity by Using
Subcomponents of Learning Style and Strategies……………………….…………..127
Table 4.10: Model Summary, Regression Analysis Predicting Learning Strategy by Using Sub- components of Learning Style Preferences ………………………………………….129
Table 4.11: ANOVA Test of Significance of Regression Model Predicting Learning Strategy by Using the Subcomponents of Learning Style Preferences………………………….130
Table 4.12: Excluded Variables of Learning Style Preferences………………………………..130
Table 4.13: Model Summary; Regression Analysis Predicting Creativity by Using Components
of Language Learning Strategies………………………………….……………….133
Table 4.14: ANOVA Test of Significance of Regression Model Predicting Creativity by Using
Components of Language Learning Strategies…………………………………….134
Table 4.15: Model Summary; Regression Analysis Predicting Creativity by Using Components
of Learning Style Preferences……………………………………………………..136
Table 4.16: ANOVA Test of Significance of Regression Model; Predicting Creativity by Using
Components of Learning Style Preferences………………………………………..137
Table 4.17: Sampling Adequacy and Sphericity Assumptions………………..………………..139
Table 4.18: Total Variance Explained……………………………………………………….…140
Table 4.19: Rotated Components Matrix…………………………………………….…..….….141
Table 4.20: Summary of the Findings ………………………………………………………….143

LISTS OF FIGURES

Figure 4.1: Scatter Plot of Testing Linearity Assumption of Language Learning Strategies and
Learning Style Preferences………………………..………………………………..106
Figure 4.2: Scatter Plot of Testing Linearity Assumption of Language Learning Strategy and
Creativity……………………………………………………………………..…….107
Figure 4.3: Scatter Plot of Testing Linearity Assumption of Learning Style Preferences and
Creativity………………………………………………………………..………….107
Figure 4.4: Scatter Plot of Studentized Residuals for Creativity…………………….………….109
Figure 4.5: Scatter Plot of Testing Linearity Assumption of Language Learning Strategies,
Learning Style Preferences and Creativity…………………………………….…..112
Figure 4.6: Linearity Assumption of EFL Learners’ Language Learning Strategies and
Creativity……………………………………………………………………………..118
Figure 4.7: Scatter Plot of Testing Linearity Assumption of EFL Learners’ Learning Style
Preferences and Creativity………………………………………………..………….123
Figure 4.8: Scatter Plot of Predicting Creativity by Using Components of Language Learning
Strategies and Learning Style Preferences……………………………………………128
Figure 4.9: Scatter Plot of Testing Assumptions of Linearity and Homoscedasticity………….131
Figure 4.10: Scatter plot of Predicting Creativity by Using Components of Language Learning
Strategies………………………………………………………………………….135
Figure 4.11: Scatter plot of Predicting

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