Motivation، Figure، Motivational

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take part in the study. Appreciation is extended to the department of education and administrators of the educational institutions in Ardabil province where this study was conducted for granting permission to the study to take part at their institutions.
My heartfelt gratitude goes to my wife who helped me a lot with statistical aspects of the thesis.

Motivation is one of the key factors that determine language learners’ success/ failure in ESL/EFL situation. Thus, it is a major challenge for language motivation researchers to help teachers elicit, enhance, and sustain students’ motivation. Dörnyei and Csizér’s (1998) research in Hungary was the first important study on motivational strategies. Following Dörnyei and Csizér (1998), a few similar studies have been carried out in this realm. 250 Iranian EFL teachers participated in this study and they were asked to rate a list of comprehensive 48 motivational strategies in terms of (1) how much importance, Importance Questionnaire, they attached to these and (2) how often, Frequency Questionnaire, they implemented them in their real teaching practice. The Persian version of the questionnaires was used in this study. The results provide evidence that some strategies like “displaying appropriate teacher behaviors” and “familiarising learners with L2-related values” were ranked first and tenth respectively in both questionnaires. Among ten macro-strategies derived from both questionnaires, some scales like two aforementioned ones are culture specific and can transfer across cultures but some other scales like “Creating a pleasant classroom climate” are culture dependent and vary from culture to culture. Also, comparing the results of two questionnaires revealed that teachers’ attitudes to the Importance of motivational strategies have no relationship with their answers to their actual Frequency of use in real EFL classes.

Table of Contents
1.1. Overview 2
1.2.Statement of the Problem 3
1.3.Significance of the Study 5
1.4.Research Questions 6
1.5.Definition of Key Terms 7
1.6. Limitations of the study 8
2.1.Overview 11
2.2.Conceptualizations of Motivation 11
2.3.The Influential Theories of L2 Motivation 13
2.3.1. The Social-Psychological Period (1959-1990) 14 Gardner’s Social-Psychological Theory 14 Keller’s (1983) Motivational-Design Model 20
2.3.2. The Cognitive-Situated Period (1990-2000) 21örnyei’s (1994) Framework of L2 Motivation 22 Williams and Burden’s (1997) Model of L2 Motivation 25 Task Motivation 27 L2 Motivation Expectancy-Value Theories 28 The Concepts of Self-Confidence and Linguistic Self-Confidence 29 Language Anxiety 31 Attribution Theory of L2 Learning 32 Achievement Motivation Theory 33 Self-Determination Theory (SDT) 34
2.3.3. The Process-Oriented Period (2000 Onwards) 36örnyei and Ottó’s (1998) Process Model of L2 Motivation 36
2.4. Significance of Motivation/ L2 Motivation 39
2.5. Types of Motivation and their Role in SL/FL Acquisition 40
2.5.1. Integrative Motivation 40
2.5.2. Instrumental Motivation 42
2.5.3. Intrinsic Motivation 43 The Intrinsic Needs of Students 44 The Need for Autonomy and Self-Determination 45 The Need for Competence 45 The Need for Belonging and Relatedness 46 The Need for Self-Esteem 46 The Need for Involvement and Enjoyment 46 Achieving Intrinsic Motivation in L2 Learning 47 The Role of Intrinsic Motivation in L2 Learning 47
2.5.4. Extrinsic Motivation 48
2.6. The L2 Motivational Self System 51
2.7. Motivational Strategies 53
2.7.1. Creating Basic Motivational Conditions 59 Demonstrating Proper Teacher Behaviour 59 Teacher’s Enthusiasm 59 Teacher’s Commitment 62 Teacher’s Care and Acceptance 63 Teacher’s Immediacy 65 Creating a Pleasant Classroom Atmosphere 66 Promoting Group Cohesiveness and Setting Group Norms 67
2.7.2.Generating Initial Motivation 70 Familiarising Learners with L2 Culture and L2 Related Values 70 Increasing Learners’ Expectancy of Success 71 Promoting Learners’ Positive Goals (Goal-Orientedness) and Realistic Beliefs 74 Relating Language Learning to Learners’ Needs and Goals 77
2.7.3. Maintaining and Protecting Motivation 78 Making Learning Stimulating and Enjoyable 78 Diminishing Learners’ Anxiety and Building up Their Self-Confidence 79 Promoting Learners’ Autonomy 82
2.7.4. Encouraging Positive Self-Evaluation 83 Promoting Learners’ Motivational Attributions 83 Providing Learners with Motivational Feedback 85 Increasing Learners’ Satisfaction 86
2.8. Current Status of English in Iran 90
3.1. Overview 93
3.2. Participants 93
3.3. Instruments 94
3.4. Design 95
3.5.Procedure 95
3.5.1.Piloting 95
3.5.2.Data collection 96
3.6. Data Analysis 97
4.1. Overview 102
4.2. Research Question 1 102
4.2.1. Results 102
4.2.2. Discussions 109
4.3. Research Question 2 110
4.3.1. Results 110
4.3.2. Discussions 111
4.4. Research Question 3 112
4.4.1. Results 112
4.4.2. Discussions 114
4.5. Research Question 4 115
4.5.1. Results 115
4.5.2. Discussions 117
5.1. Overview 119
5.2. Conclusion 119
5.3.Pedagogical Implications 121
5.4.Suggestions for Further research 126
References 137

List of Appendixes
Appendix 1: English version of Frequency Questionnaires 127
Appendix 2: English version of Importance Questionnaires 130
Appendix 3: Farsi version of Frequency Questionnaires 133
Appendix 4: Farsi version of Importance Questionnaires 135

List of Tables
Table 3.1. Gender of Participants 93
Table 3.2. EFL Teaching Experience of Participants 93
Table 3.3. Importance and Frequency Survey Results: Descriptive Statistics and Rankings of Ten Macro-strategies and Related Strategies 99
Table 4.1. Importance Questionnaires Results: Descriptive Statistics and Rankings of Ten Macro-strategies and Related Strategies 103
Table 4.2. Comparison of the Final Rank Order of the Macro-strategies/scales Obtained in This Study and in Hungary (1998), Taiwan (2007) 110
Table 4.3. Frequency Questionnaires Results: Descriptive Statistics and Rankings of Ten Macro-strategies and Related Strategies 112
Table 4.4. Pearson Correlation Results between Overall Means of Motivational Strategies of the Importance and Frequency Questionnaires 115
Table 4.5. Pearson Correlation Results between Macro and Micro-strategies of the Importance and Frequency Questionnaires 116

List of Figures
Figure 2.1. Gardner’s (1985) Socio-Educational Model of Second Language Acquisition (Gardner, 1985, p.199) 15
Figure 2.2. Components of Gardner’s Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) (Gardner, 1985, 144) 17
Figure 2.3. Tremblay and Gardner’s (1995) Model of L2 Motivation (cited in Dörnyei& Ushioda, 2011, p.48 19
Figure 2.4. Dörnyei’s (1994) Model of L2 Motivation (Dörnyei, 1994a, p.280) 24
Figure 2.5. Williams and Burden’s (1997) Framework of L2 Motivation (cited in Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011, p.54) 26
Figure 2.6. Schematic Representation of the Three Mechanisms Making up the Motivational Task- Processing System (cited in Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011, p.96) 28
Figure 2.7. Dörnyei and Ottó’s (1998) Process Model of L2 Motivation (Dörnyei and Ottó, 1998, p.48) 38
Figure 2.8. Gardner’s Conceptualisation of the Integrative Motivation (Gardner, 1986, p.87) 41
Figure 2.9. Dörnyei’s L2 Motivational Self System (cited in Dörnyei & Usioda, 2011, p. 52) 52
Figure 2.10. The Components of Motivational L2 Teaching Practice (cited in Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011, p.108) 58
Figure 2.11. Knight’s (2006) Model of Teacher’s Credibility (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011, p.108) 61

List of Abbreviations
TEFL: Teaching English as a Foreign Language
ESL: English as a Second Language
EFL: English as a Foreign Language
SL: Second Language
FL: Foreign Language
L2: Second Language
SDT: Self-Determination Theory
AMTB: Attitude/Motivation Test Battery
ARCS: Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction
CET: Cognitive Evaluation Theory
ESOL: English for Speakers of Other Languages
MOLT: Motivation Orientation of Language Teaching
COLT: Communication Orientation of Language Teaching
LSP: Language for Specific Purposes
NO: Number
M: Mean
SD: Standard Deviation
Diff: Difference
Corr.: Correlation
Sig.: Significance


1.1. Overview
In the field of second or foreign language (L2) teaching and learning, motivation is a significant factor that leads to the language learners’ success or failure. Motivation is the most used concept for explaining the failure or success of a learner. Dörnyei (1998) claimed that motivation is a key to learning. It is an inner source, desire, emotion, reason, need, impulse or purpose that moves a person to a particular action. Motivation has been regarded as one of the main factors that influence the speed and amount of success of foreign language learners. This issue seems to be highly related to the educational context of Iran where it is seen that many Iranian learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) fail to reach at least an average level of proficiency in English. As Dörnyei (2001b) claims, motivation is not a concrete concept; it is an abstract and hypothetical concept that is used to

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