پایان نامه رایگان درمورد حق ثبت اختراع، کشورهای درحال توسعه، سازمان تجارت جهاني

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نباید چنین اقدامی را قبل از اعطای حق ثبت اختراع امکان پذیر بداند.
95 . موافقت نامه آزاد تجاری آمریکا و بحرین، ماده (7) 8. 14 بیان می کند: هنگامی که یک عضو بر مبنای حق ثبت اختراع اعطا شده در قلمرو دیگری اعطای حق ثبت به اختراعی در نظر می گیرد، آن عضو، به درخواست صاحب اختراع، باید به اندازه مدتی برابر مدت در نظر گرفته شده در آن قلمرو، مدت حق ثبت اختراع اعطا شده تحت چنین روندی را تمدید کند.
96 . The United States-Jordan Free Trade Agreement.
https://ustr.gov/trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements/jordan-fta/final-text. , last visited: 03/15/2015.
97 . Carlos Correa, “Implications of bilateral free trade agreements on access to medicines”. Public Health Reviews, 2006, P.400.
98 . United States-South Korea Free Trade Agreement.
https://ustr.gov/trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements/korus-fta/final-text. , last visited: 03/27/2014.
99 . “Promotion and Protection of All Human Rights, Civil, Political, Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Including the Right to Development”. United Nations, A/HRC/11/12, 31 March 2009, P. 24.
http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/docs/11session/A.HRC.11.12_en.pdf, last visited: 03/22/2015.
100 . ibid, P. 24, 25.
101 . TRIPS Agreement, article 39, para. 3.
https://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/27-trips.pdf, last visited: 05/04/2014.
102 . US-Morocco Free Trade Agreement, Section 15.10.
https://ustr.gov/trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements/morocco-fta/final-text, last visited: 03/23/2015.
103 . The EU–Lebanon Free Trade Agreement. Annex V.
http://www.efta.int/free-trade/free-trade-agreements/Lebanon, last visited: 03/21/2015, Article: 4.
104 . Yi-Jen Chu, “The Evolution of US and EU Approaches to Intellectual Property Provisions Related to Public Health in Free Trade Agreements: Are They Responding to Public Health Concerns?” Munich Intellectual Property Law Center (MIPLC), 2010, P .28 & Roffe .P, Spennemann .Ch, “The impact of FTAs on public health policies and TRIPS flexebilities”. Int.J. Intellectual Property Management, Vol. 1, Nos. 1/2, 2006, P.82.
105 . “The Potential Impact of Free Trade Agreements on Public Health”. UNDP; UNAIDS, 2012, P. 4.
http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage/hiv-aids/issue-brief–the-potential-impact-of-free-trade-agreements-on-pu.html, last visited: 09/27/2014.
106 . ibid, P. 4.
107 . “Political Declaration on HIV and AIDS: Intensifying Our Efforts to Eliminate HIV and AIDS”. General Assembly of United Nations, A/RES/65/277, New York, 2011, P. 11, Paragragh: 71(a).
http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/sub_landing/files/20110610_UN_A-RES-65-277_en.pdf, last visited: 09/26/2014.
108 . United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
109 . Room To Manoeuvre
110 . Carlos Correa, Keith Maskus, Jerome Reichman, Hanns Ullrich, “The TRIPS Agreement and Developing Countries”. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), 1996.
111 . WHO’s Red Book
112 . Margins Of Freedom
113 . Germán Velásquez, Pascale Boulet, “Globalization and Access to Drugs: Implications of the WTO/TRIPS Agreement”. WHO, Geneva, November, 1997, P.34.
114 . Safeguards
115 .“Globalization, TRIPS and access to pharmaceuticals”. WHO Policy Perspectives on Medicines, No. 3, WHO, Geneva, March 2001, P. 5.
http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/pdf/s2240e/s2240e.pdf, last visited: 09/27/2014., last visited: 03/08/2015.
116 . Sufficiently Wide Margin Of Discretion
117 . Flexibilities Of The Agreement
118 . Germán Velásquez, “Access to Medicines and Intellectual Property: The Contribution of the World Health Organization”. South Centre, Research Papers 47, 2013, P.5 http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s20168en/s20168en.pdf, last visited: 09/27/2014.
119 . The Provisions In TRIPS That Allow Flexibility
120 . Flexibilities
121 . Carolyn Deere, “The Implementation Game: the TRIPS agreement and the global politics of intellectual property reform in developing countries”. Oxford University Press, 2009, P.68.
122 . Elena Ghanotakis, “Access to Medicines for Developing Countries”. Journal of Word IP, vol 7, issue 14, 2004.
123 . Committee on Development and Intellectual Property (CDIP)
124 . WTO; WHO; WIPO. “Promoting access to medical technologies and innovation: intersections between public health, intellectual property and trade”. Geneva, 2013, P. 72.
125 . Mohammed Said, “Public health related TRIPS-plus provisions in bilateral trade agreements”. World Health Organization and International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, 2010, P. 90, 91.
126 . “Political Declaration on HIV and AIDS: Intensifying Our Efforts to Eliminate HIV and AIDS”. General Assembly of United Nations, A/RES/65/277, New York, 2011, P. 11, 12.
http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/sub_landing/files/20110610_UN_A-RES-65-277_en.pdf, last visited: 09/26/2014.
127 . مرکز جنوب(South Centre) یک سازمان بین الدولی متشکل از کشورهای درحال توسعه است که حامی تلاش این کشورها و ارائه دهنده کارشناسی های لازم برای ارتقای منافع مشترکشان در عرصه بین المللی می باشد. مرکز جنوب به موجب یک توافق نامه بین الدولی که در تاریخ 31 جولای 1995 لازم الاجرا شد، تاسیس شده است و دفتر مرکزی آن در ژنو می باشد.
128 . http://www.southcentre.int/press-release-3-march-2014/#more-6336, last visited: 05/05/2015.
129 . Paris Convention for the protection of industrial property. 1883, WIPO, Article: 5A(2).
http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/text.jsp?file_id=288514#P123_15283, last visited: 09/28/2014.
130 . ibid, Article: 5A(4).
131 . Fink.C. “Intellectual Property and Public Health: An Overview of the Debate with a Focus on U.S. Policy”. Center for Global Development, Working Paper Number 146, 2008, P.7.
132 . Sylvia, Fodor, “Compulsory licensing under the TRIPS-Agreement: a tool for developing countries’ access to technology transfers”. Lund University, 2011, P. 31.
133 . Coenraad Visser, “Patent Exceptions and Limitations in the Health Context”. WIPO, SCP/15/3, ANNEX V, 2010, P. 4.
http://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/scp/en/scp_15/scp_15_3-annex1.pdf. , last visited: 10/08/2014.
134 . محسن صادقی، حمايت از ابداعات دارويي و الحاق به سازمان تجارت جهاني، نشر میزان، چاپ اول، 1331، ص523.
135 . Antitrust Law.
136 . WTO; WHO; WIPO. “Promoting access to medical technologies and innovation: intersections between public health, intellectual property and trade”. Geneva, 2013, P. 174.
137 . Ibid, P. 174.
138 . محسن صادقی، پیشین، ص525.
139 . Lamivudine
140 . Nevirapine
141 .http://lists.essential.org/pipermail/ip-health/2004-december/007233.html. , last visited: 09/28/2014.
142 . Jerome Reichman, Catherine Hasenzahl, “Non-Voluntary Licensing Of Patented Inventions, The Canadian Experience”, UNCTUD/ICTSD, October 2002, P. 11.
143 . محسن صادقی، پیشین، ص537.
144 . Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, WT/MIN(01)/DEC/2, 20 Nov. 2001, WTO, Paragraph. 4.
https://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/minist_e/min01_e/mindecl_trips_e.htm. , last visited: 09/29/2014.
145 . ibid, Paragraph. 5(c).
146 . ibid, Paragraph. 6.
147 . “Implementation of paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and public health”. Decision of the General Council of 30 August 2003, Doc.WT/L/540, WTO, 1 September 2003.
https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/trips_e/implem_para6_e.htm, last visited: 09/30/2014.
148 . https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/trips_e/factsheet_pharm02_e.htm. , last visited: 05/06/2015.
149 . “Amendment of the TRIPS Agreement”, Wt/L/641, WTO, 8 December 2005.
https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/trips_e/ta_docs_e/3_wtl641_e.pdf, last visited: 05/07/2015.
150 . https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/trips_e/amendment_e.htm. , last visited: 05/07/2015.
151 . “Implementation of paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and public health”. Decision of the General Council of 30 August 2003, Doc.WT/L/540, WTO, 1 September 2003, Paragraph: 2(a).
152 . ibid. Paragraph: 2(b).
153 . ibid. Paragraph: 2(c).
154 . ibid. Paragraph: 3.
155 . ibid. Paragraph: 4.
156 . Apotex corporation.
157 . http://www.apotex.com/ca/en/default.asp, last visited: 10/01/2014.
158 . http://www.cipo.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/cipointernet-internetopic.nsf/eng/wr00682.html. , last visited: 10/01/2014.
159 . Apo-Triavir.
160 . Canada’s Access to Medicines Regime Program (CAMR).
161 . Glaxo Smith Kline (GSK).
162 . “Regional issue brief: intellectual property rights and access to medicines”. Global commission on HIV and law; UNDP, South Africa, 2011.
http://www.hivlawcommission.org/index.php/regional-dialogues-main/asia-pacific/regional-issues-brief-intellectual-property-rights-and-access-to-medicines/download. , last visited: 10/01/2014.
163 . “Submission to the Standing Committee on Industry, Science and Technology”. Bill C-393, An Act to amend the Patent Act (drugs for international humanitarian purposes) and to make a consequential amendment to another Act. Apotex Inc., October 26, 2010.
https://www.apotex.com/global/docs/submission_order_en.pdf, last visited: 10/03/2014.
164 . http://www.apotex.com/ca/en/about/press/20070920.asp. , last visited: 10/03/2014.
165 . WTO; WHO; WIPO. “Promoting access to medical technologies and innovation: intersections between public health, intellectual property and trade”. Geneva, 2013, P. 178.
166. بیماری آفتوز (Aphthous (aftosa) fever) یک بیماری ویروسی واگیردار دهان و سم در بین حیوانات مخصوصا گاو است و همراه با علائم تب می باشد.
167 . Coenraad Visser, “Patent Exceptions and Limitations in the Health Context”. WIPO, SCP/15/3, ANNEX V, 2010, P. 17.
http://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/scp/en/scp_15/scp_15_3-annex1.pdf. , last visited: 10/08/2014.
168 . Nelfinavir.
169 . Efavirenz.
170 . United States Trade Representative(USTR).
171 . “Brazil – Measures Affecting Patent Protection”, Request for Consultations by the United States, WTO, WT/DS199/1, G/L/385, IP/D/23, 8 June 2000.
https://docs.wto.org/dol2fe/Pages/FE_Search/DDFDocuments/35212/Q/G/L/385.pdf, last visited: 10/08/2014.
172 . “Brazil – Measures

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