پایان نامه با موضوع 148، learning، Statistic

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data (Field, 2009). The data should be measured on an interval scale. The subjects should be independent that is to say their performance on the test is not affected by the performance of other students. The data should enjoy normal distribution, the relationships between the variables should be linear and finally the residuals should have homogeneous variances (homoscedasticity). The present data were measured on an interval scale. The subjects performed independently on the questionnaires. The assumptions of normality, linearity, and homoscedasticity are discussed in the succeeding sections.
4.2.1.1 Assumption of Normality

To check the normality of the distributions, the descriptive statistics of the data were obtained and are reported thoroughly in the next three sections.
4. 2.1. 1.1 Descriptive Statistics of the SILL Scores

The SILL questionnaire was administered in order to estimate the participants’ degree of learning strategies. The descriptive statistics related to the obtained scores on the instrument and its subcomponents appears below in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1: Descriptive Statistics of SILL

N
Mean
Std.
Variance
Skewness
kurtios

Statistic
Statistic
Statistic
Statistic
Statistic
Statistic
Statistic
Statistic
SILL
148
125.02
21.991
483.612
-.278
.199
-.436
.396
Memory
148
21.08
4.323
18.687
.221
.199
.051
.396
Cognitive
148
35.68
5.817
33.837
.099
.199
.324
.396
Compensation
148
14.84
3.057
9.343
.223
.199
-.472
.396
Megacognitive
148
26.36
5.006
25.063
-.131
.199
-.379
.396
Affective
148
12.44
2.795
7.813
.350
.199
-.188
.396
Social
148
14.61
3.487
12.158
-.197
.199
-.480
.396

As demonstrated in Table 4.1, the distribution of data for SILL came out to be normal as both the skewness and kurtosis ratios fell within the range of -1.96 and +1.96 for this distribution. This means that the distribution did not show a significant deviation from normality; therefore, parametric correlation could be run on the participants’ scores obtained from the SILL questionnaire. It should be mentioned that due to the large sample size, the absolute values of skewness and kurtosis are examined for normality.

4. 2.1. 1.2 Descriptive Statistics of the PLSP Scores

The PLSP questionnaire was administered in order to estimate the participants’ degree of learning style preferences. The descriptive statistics related to the obtained scores on the instrument and its subcomponents appears below in Table 4.2.

Table 4.2: Descriptive Statistics of PLSP

N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Variance
Skewness
Kurtosis

Statistic
statistic
Statistic
Statistic
Std. Error
Statistic
Std. Error
PLSP
148
112.77
17.861
319.022
-.701
.199
.399
.396
Group
148
17.57
4.342
18.858
-.462
.199
-0.08
.396
Individual
148
17.64
4.038
16.313
-.378
.199
.179
.396
Visual
148
19.53
2.478
6.142
.129
.199
-.191
.396
Auditory
148
18.76
2.674
7.151
-.582
.199
.838
.396
Tactile
148
19.31
2.955
8.733
-.479
.199
.637
.396
Kinesthetic
148
19.95
2.965
8.794
-.574
.199
.295
.396

As demonstrated in Table 4.2, the distribution of data for PLSP came out to be normal as both the skewness and kurtosis ratios fell within the range of -1.96 and +1.96 for this distribution. This means that the distribution did not show a significant deviation from normality; therefore, parametric correlation could be run on the participants’ scores obtained from the PLSP questionnaire. It should be mentioned that due to the large sample size, the absolute values of skewness and kurtosis were examined for normality.
4. 2.1. 1.3 Descriptive Statistics of the ACT Scores

The creativity questionnaire, Abedi-Schumacher Creativity Test or the ACT was administered in order to estimate the participants’ degree of creativity. The descriptive statistics related to the obtained scores on the instrument appears below in Table 4.3.
Table 4.3: Descriptive Statistics of ACT

N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Variance
Skewness
Kurtosis

Statistic
Statistic
statistic
Statistic
Statistic
Std. Error
Statistic
Std. Error
CR
148
57.5
13.702
187.745
-.034
.199
-.108
.396

As demonstrated in Table 4.3, the distribution of data for creativity (CR) came out to be normal as both the skewness and kurtosis ratios fell within the range of -1.96 and +1.96 for this distribution. This means that the distribution did not show a significant deviation from normality; therefore, parametric correlation could be run on the participants’ scores obtained from the creativity questionnaire. It should be mentioned that due to the large sample size, the absolute values of skewness and kurtosis were examined for normality.

4.2.1.2 Assumption of Linearity

Figures 4.1, 4.2, & 4.3 examine the linearity of relationships between language learning strategies, learning style preferences and creativity. The spread of dots along the diagonals indicate that the relationships between the variables are linear.

Figure 4.1: Testing Linearity Assumption of Language Learning Strategies and Learning Style Preferences

Figure 4.2: Testing Linearity Assumption of Language Learning Strategies and Creativity

Figure 4.3: Testing Linearity Assumption of Learning Style Preferences and Creativity
4.2.1.3 Assumption of Homoscedasticity

To check the assumption of homoscedasticity, that is, the assumption that variance of residuals for every pair of points on the independent variable is equal (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007), the researcher examined the residuals plot.
As displayed through Figure 4.4, the assumption of homoscedasticity is not met. The spread of dots seems to be narrow on one end and wide on the other end and they also show a fall-and-rise pattern. If the assumption of homoscedasticity is violated, the results of the regression model will be correct, however, the findings can only be generalized to the immediate population from which the sample is selected (Filed, 2009).
The assumption of homoscedasticity is discussed more when reporting the results of regression analyses in the succeeding sections.

Figure 4.4: Plot of Studentized Residuals for Creativity

4.3 Testing the Null Hypotheses

4.3.1 Testing the First Null Hypothesis

The first null hypothesis states that:
H 01: There is no significant relationship among EFL learners’ use of language learning strategies, learning style preferences, and creativity.
The Pearson correlation was run to probe any significant relationships between EFL learners’ use of language learning strategies, learning style preferences, and creativity. The results of the Pearson correlation (Table 4.4) indicate that there are positive significant relationships between:
A: EFL learners’ use of language learning strategies and their learning style preferences (r (146) = .83, P .05, it enjoys a large effect size); &
B: EFL learners’ use of language learning strategies and their creativity (r (146) = .73, P .05, it enjoys a large effect size).
C: EFL learners’ learning style preferences and their creativity (r (146) = .88, P .05, it enjoys a large effect size).
The values of correlations (0.83, 0.73, and 0.88) indicate how closely language learning strategies, learning style preferences and creativity are related.
Table 4.4: Correlations between Language Learning Strategies, Learning Style Preferences and Creativity

Learning Strategy
Creativity
Learning Style
Pearson Correlation
.832**
.886**

Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
.000

N
148
148
Learning Strategy
Pearson Correlation

.738**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

148
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
The value of sigma (0.000) shows that the correlation is significant at 0.01 level.

Thus, it can be concluded that the first null hypothesis as -There is no significant relationship among EFL learners’ use of language learning strategies, learning style preferences, and creativity is rejected at 0.01 level.
Figure 4.5 examines the linearity of relationships between language learning strategies, learning style preferences and creativity. The spread of dots along the diagonals indicate that the relationships between each pair of variables are linear.

Figure 4.5: Testing Linearity Assumption of Language Learning Strategies, Learning Style Preferences and Creativity

4.3.2 Testing the Second Null Hypothesis

The second null hypothesis states that:
H02: There is no significant relationship between using different types of language learning strategies and learning style preferences by EFL learners.
The Pearson correlation was run to probe any significant relationship between the subcomponents of the learning style preferences and use of language learning strategies (Table 4.5).

Table 4.5: Correlations between the Subcomponents of Language Learning Strategies and Learning Styles Preferences

Memory
Cognitive
Compensation
Metacognitive
Affective
Social
Group
Pearson Correlation
.744**
.649**
.668**
.676**
.691**
.740**

Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000

N
148
148
148
148
148
148
Individual
Pearson Correlation
.717**
.713**
.543**
.683**
.664**
.687**

Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000

N
148
148
148
148
148
148
Visual
Pearson Correlation
.684**
.752**
.576**
.807**
.850**
.745**

Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000

N
148
148
148
148
148
148
Auditory
Pearson Correlation
.584**
.616**
.560**
.798**
.815**
.755**

Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000

N
148
148
148
148
148
148
Tactile
Pearson Correlation
.538**
.571**
.513**
.775**
.748**
.782**

Sig.

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