aker & Boonkit, 2004) as “techniques and methods readers use to make their reading successful” (p. 302). Moreover, reading strategies also has been defined as plans and behaviors for solving problems when faced in constructing meaning (Janzen, 2003).
Conclusion and Pedagogical Implications
The present study aimed at exploring the relationship between EFL learners’ use of reading strategies and their argumentative, expository texts comprehension across different proficiency levels. The previous chapter dealt with analyzing the data and in this chapter the conclusion drawn from the results will be discussed.
5.2 Procedures and Summery of the Findings
In the previous chapters it was discussed that 120 female learners at ILI language school were provided with a translated version of reading strategies questionnaire and a reading comprehension test. After collecting the data Pearson Correlation was used to calculate the relationship between the three variables, reading strategies as the predictor variable and comprehension of expository, argumentative texts as the predicted one. Since there was a significant correlation between the variables, multiple regression analysis was used by the researcher. Also it was shown that EFL learners’ use of reading strategies is a significant predictor of their comprehension of expository and argumentative texts.
As the first step argumentative and expository texts were administered each to 30 students during the pilot study. Each of these 30 students has characteristics similar to the target sample. Then 120 female learners at ILI language school took the piloted tests. Students were divided into three levels of beginners, intermediates, and advanced according to the placement test. The participants took the instruments in two sessions. The first session, the reading strategies questionnaire was administered. In the second session, the participants took the reading tests. Each subject was assigned a test booklet which contained four reading passages (two expository and two argumentative texts). To verify the null hypotheses the Pearson Correlation Coefficient had to be run. The three variables of the study proved to be correlated with each other. In other words there was a significant relationship between EFL learners’ use of reading strategies and their comprehension of expository and argumentative texts across different proficiency levels. Therefore, the null hypotheses of the study were rejected. Also it was shown that advanced learners outperformed the other levels i.e. beginners and intermediates. Furthermore, reading strategy was proved to be a significant predictor of texts comprehension.
To sum up, the current research sought to investigate the relationship between EFL learners’ use of reading strategies and expository, argumentative texts comprehension. In reading comprehension instruction, reader strategies serve as a significant element in aiding students to individually increase their own comprehension of text. According to Roe and Ross(2006), reader strategies are adjustable approaches to reading that change depending on the textual context. This kind of strategy is dependent upon the student and requires him or her to think critically about how to approach the text in order to decode and retain information (Roe & Ross, 2006)
5.3 Pedagogical Implications
5.3.1 Implications for teachers
It is crucial for teachers to consider ways for teaching students who are struggling to comprehend texts. Neufeld (2005) stated simply providing student with opportunities to read does not ensure students will develop and use comprehension strategies, but explicitly teaching comprehension skills will help students comprehend the text. Similarly, Radcliff, Caverly, and Peterson (2004) wrote that explicit teaching of comprehension strategies “prompt students to apply their prior knowledge and monitor their comprehension (p. 146).”
It is necessary that language teachers become familiar with the students’ deficiencies and needs. The present study emphasizes the need for familiarizing the students with reading strategies in low and high proficiency levels and points to the usefulness of explicit training of reading strategies before, during, and after reading in order to maximize students’ comprehension, motivate them to read, and accelerate their reading speed. Of course, it is advisable that teachers match the intended reading strategies with certain text types, and offer the reading strategies that are congruent with the specific text type to be read.
5.3.2 Implication for testing
Not only can reading strategies be utilized in teaching environments, but they can be used to when testing students’ comprehension. Such reading strategies can be used to alleviate the students’ anxiety in testing situations. Furthermore, it is a good idea to include with different text types in reading comprehension tests rather than merely sticking to one type of text.
5.3.3 Implication for textbook designers
The material offered for the EFL contexts are of utmost importance, as they should be devised in a way that is motivating for the students in a manner that their achievement is ensured. There is no doubt that reading strategies can be motivating devices for EFL students and can improve their comprehension. So, those responsible for developing EFL materials can use different reading strategies comprising pre-, during-, and post-reading activities and tasks for texts in order to increase students’ motivation, and by doing so, they can help them better comprehend the reading passage. Also, syllabus designers should incorporate genre-based approaches into the teaching syllabi, i.e., they should include different genres in their syllabi and avoid sticking to just one type.
5.4 Suggestions for Further Research
The findings of the study lead to several recommendations for further research.
1. The research focused on female students at ILI language school. A similar study can be carried out on both male and female students and then make some comparison between the two sexes.
2. In this study the predicted variables were expository and argumentative texts. Another research can be done with other text types such as, narrative, persuasion, or description.
3. The researcher used Persian version of the SILL questionnaire for measuring learner’s reading strategies. Other study can be done with a variety of different questionnaires of reading strategies.
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