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for autonomy is a matter of gaining power and control over their lives. This process suggests that all students have a natural resistance to some orders like Stand up! Sit down! Be quiet! Stop talking!
2.5.3.1.2. The Need for Competence
Raffini (1996) has proposed that in order to increase the intrinsic motivation of students it is important to create an environment in which students can discover that their serious efforts to learn enables them to attain a sense of academic competence. He adds that despite the fact that the amount of time and effort required for academic achievement varies considerably among students, they all need to have access to the feeling of competence that comes from achievement.
2.5.3.1.3. The Need for Belonging and Relatedness
Rudolph Dreikurs (1968), the founder of American Adlerian psychology, believes that all humans are social beings with a basic desire to belong to a group. Schmuck and Schmuck (1974) found that student academic achievement and presumably motivation were enhanced when children were willing to help and support one another and when friendship within the classroom was broadly dispersed among many peers.
2.5.3.1.4. The Need for Self-Esteem
Reasoner (1982) defines self-esteem as appreciating one’s own worth and importance, having the character to be accountable for oneself, and acting responsibly towards others. For Kaplan (1990), self-esteem refers to the judgment of merit or value that an individual places on the various facets of the self. Scheidecker and Freeman (1999) state that the elusive concept of self-esteem is really spelled S * U * C * C * E * S * S. They add that the only way to build true self-esteem is through making people successful.
Raffini (1996) has argued that students with high self-esteem are more likely to succeed in life because they have a clear sense of direction regarding their priorities and goals. He adds that it seems reasonable that activities designed to increase students’ self-esteem will also increase their intrinsic motivation to learn. Moreover, Chambers (1999) hypothesises that self-esteem is an important motivational factor and that pupils who feel good about themselves are more likely to have a more positive mindset towards the subject and related classroom activities than those who do not.
2.5.3.1.5. The Need for Involvement and Enjoyment
Raffini (1996) has emphasised the need for involving students actively in learning activities. He recommends that if teachers truly want to intrinsically motivate students to devote large amounts of effort to learning, then they must design the process of learning with a clear understanding of students’ need for involvement and enjoyment. Raffini asserts that the need for involvement and enjoyment in learning is often lost when educators are restrained when designing curriculum and lesson plans. A further discussion about this need is presented in section 2.7.3.1.
2.5.3.2. Achieving Intrinsic Motivation in L2 Learning
From the perspective of cognitive evaluation theory, the most important question that arises in the classroom is how to enhance or maintain the learners’ intrinsic motivation to learn. There are ways to achieve this in L2 learning. Self-direction is a significant way for enhancing intrinsic motivation of L2 learners. Learners become intrinsically motivated when they are able to determine their own learning objectives, choose their own ways to achieve such objectives, and evaluate their own progress. Bachman (1964) found that involving learners in decision-making tends to lead to increased motivation and, thereby, to increased productivity. In addition, Bruner (1962) suggests that the most important way to help children learn is by keeping them free from the control of rewards and punishments. Bruner (1962) adds that when children are learning intrinsically, they tend to interpret their successes and failures as information rather than as rewards and punishments.
2.5.3.3. The Role of Intrinsic Motivation in L2 Learning
Some educational psychologists have found that intrinsic motivation is closely associated with high educational achievement and enjoyment by students. Deci and Ryan (1985) argue that intrinsic motivation is a central motivator of any educational process stating that “intrinsic motivation is in evidence whenever students’ natural curiosity and interest energise their learning. When the educational environment provides optimal challenges, rich sources of stimulation, and a context of autonomy, this motivational wellspring in learning is likely to flourish,” (p. 245).
In addition to their claim that intrinsic motivation is a central motivator of any educational process, Deci and Ryan (1985) argue that being intrinsically motivated to learn improves the quality of learning. They add that it seems clear based on various experimental studies’ findings that intrinsic motivation is closely related to academic motivation. Noels and associates (1999) support such a finding claiming that increased intrinsic motivation has been related to greater interest in course material and higher academic performance. They add that stronger feelings of intrinsic motivation were related to positive language learning outcomes including greater motivational intensity, greater self-evaluations of competence, and a reduction in anxiety.
Long-term learning was found to be more influenced by intrinsic motivation. Wang (2006) emphasises that studies show that L2 long-term learning, is mostly influenced by intrinsic motivation. Furthermore, Ramage (1990) summarises that continuing students tend to be more motivated to learn language for language’s sake, that is, to be intrinsically motivated, than those students who decide to disconnect language studies.
2.5.4. Extrinsic Motivation
Many researchers have tried to define extrinsic motivation. Nicholls (1984) argues that extrinsic involvement is a state of motivation in which learning is seen or experienced as a means to an end rather than an end in itself. He adds that if children are learning to please a teacher, to gain a token, or to get out of school early, they are described as extrinsically involved. Wang (2006) proposes that extrinsic motivation comes from the learner’s desire to get external rewards, or the recognition of peers and parents, or a desire to avoid punishment. Generally, the extrinsically motivated behaviours are those that individuals perform for the sake of receiving extrinsic rewards, such as getting a job or better salary, or to avoid punishment. Some researchers have investigated the relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Ryan and Deci (2000) have differentiated between the two types of motivation by declaring that extrinsic motivation refers to the performance of an activity in order to attain separable outcomes in contrasts to intrinsic motivation, which refers to doing an activity for the inherent satisfaction of the activity itself. Although Deci and Ryan (1985) have distinguished between the two types of motivation, they suggest that the same factors that enhance and promote self-determined intrinsic motivation can also promote self-determined extrinsic motivation and vice versa. Deci and Ryan’s (1985) self-determination theory identifies four types of regulations that come in between the two forms of motivation and can be classified as types of extrinsic motivation as follows (examples cited as in Dörnyei, 2009):
a) External regulation comes from external sources such as rewards or threats (e.g. teacher’s praise or parental confrontation). This is considered the least self-determined form of extrinsic motivation.
b) Interjected regulation is the externally imposed rules that the students have to comply with in avoidance for feeling guilty (e.g. laws of a country).
c) Identified regulation describes students engaging in activity for its high value and usefulness (e.g. learning a language that is necessary to pursue hobbies or interests).
d) Integrated regulation is the advanced form of extrinsic motivation. It involves a conscious behaviour that is fully incorporated with the individual’s other needs, values, and identity (e.g. learning English because proficiency in this language is part of an educated multi-ethnic culture one has adopted).
Many researchers have claimed that extrinsic inducements can undermine intrinsic motivation because learners tend to lose their intrinsic interest in an activity if they have to do it for the sake of extrinsic incentives such as grades or rewards. Deci and Ryan (1985) argue that rewards are likely to be accompanied by greater surveillance, evaluation, and competition, which have all been found to undermine intrinsic motivation. According to Deci and associates (1999), the careful considerations of rewards effects reported in 128 experiments lead to the conclusion that tangible rewards tend to have a substantially negative effect on intrinsic motivation. Brophy (2004) claims that rewards are most likely to decrease performance quality as well as intrinsic motivation when they are highly salient (i.e. rewards are very attractive and are presented in ways that call attention to them), non-contingent (i.e. rewards are given for mere participation in the activity, rather than being contingent on achieving specific goals), and unnatural/unusual (i.e. rewards are artificially tied to behaviours as control devices, rather than being natural outcomes of the behaviours).
Other studies, however, have found no negative relation between the two types of motivation. For example, Deci (1975) was the first to propose the Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET), which primarily describes the effects of external events on intrinsic motivation. In this theory, Deci outlines that every reward has a controlling aspect that involves offering rewards for working on a task, and an informational aspect that provides the recipients with information about their

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