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sulfide and/or cysteine-HCl with various concentrations) at different initial medium pH (6.8 or 5.9) were used in the batch bioreactors. The results suggested the plausible provision of more electrons into the culture in the presence of 5.07 mM cysteine-HCl at the medium pH 5.9, as a promoted ethanol to acetate molar ratio of 0.65 was achieved in this culture. In order to determine the intrinsic growth, substrate uptake and product formation biokinetic parameters in synthesis gas fermentation process, the bacterium was grown in various pressurized batch bioreactors. A dual-substrate growth kinetic model using Loung for CO and Monod for H2 was developed to describe the growth rate kinetics of the bacterium on these substrates. This model also accommodated CO inhibitory effects on cell growth at high CO partial pressures. The Volterra model, Andrews and modified Gompertz were respectively adopted to describe the cell growth, substrate uptake rate and product formation. Continuous synthesis gas fermentation experiments were carried out in a 2.0 L CSTR bioreactor. The effects of various operation parameters including liquid dilution rates, synthesis gas flow rates and agitation speed on the culture performance were assessed. The highest specific production rate (0.0048 mol g-1cell h-1), product yield (YP/S=0.178) and ethanol to acetate molar ratio of 0.73 (with 30 mM ethanol and 41 mM acetate) was achieved at the dilution rate of 0.018 )h-1(, gas flow rate of 12 )ml min-1( and agitation speed of 500 )rpm(.

Key words: Ethanol, Acetate, Clostridium ljungdahlii, Synthesis gas fermentation

1 first generation biofuels
2 second generation biofuels
3 lignocellulosic biomass
4 energy crops
5 pyrolysis
6 gasification
7 Fischer-Tropsch liquid (FTL)
8 pretreatment
9 gasifying agent
10 autotroph
11 unicarbonotroph
12 acetogenic
13 carboxydotrophic
14 methanogenic
15 Claus
16 specificity
17 tar
18 char
19 Saccharomyces cerevisiae
20 Zymomonas
21 Z. mobilis
22 Embden-Meyerhof- Parnas pathway
23 pyruvate
24 Entner-Doudoroff pathway
25 obligate anaerobes
26 chemolithotrophically
27 Clostridia
28 Moorella
29 objectives
30 scopes and limitations
31 solventogenic
32 Acetogenic 
33 hydrogenogenic
34 methanogenic
35 water-gas shift reaction
36 Rhodospirillum rubrum
37 Rhodobacter sphaeroides
38 Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum
39 Methanosarcina barkeri
40 Clostridium thermoaceticum
41 Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa
42 Rhodopseudomonas capsulate
43 Rhodopseudomonas palustris
44 Rubrivivax gelatinosus
45 Bacillus simithii ERIH2
46 Rhodopseudomonas palustris P4
47 Citrobacter amalonaticus Y19
48 Rhodocyclus gelatinosus
49 Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans
50 Peptostreptococcus productus
51 Eubacterium limosum
52 Acetobacterium woodii
53 Acetobacterium wieringae
54 Clostridium thermoaceticum
55 Clostridium autoethanogenum
56 Clostridium ljungdahlii
57 Moorella sp. HUC22-1
58 Acetobacterium kivui
59 Peotostreotococcus productus
60 Alkalibaculum bacchi
61 Eubacterium limosum
62 Clostridium carboxidivorans
63 Butyribacterium methylotrophicum
64 Methanospirillum hungatii
65 Methanobacterium formicicum
66 Methanobrevibacter smithu
67 Methanosarcina barkeri
68 Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum
69 carbon monoxide dehydrogenase
70 Rubrivivax gelatinosus
71 Jung et al.
72 Citrobacter sp. Y19
73 Rhodopseudomonas palustris P4
74 chemoheterotrophic
75 phototrophic
76 heterotrophic anaerobes
77 heterotrophic facultative anaerobes
78 heterotrophic strict anaerobes
79 photosynthetic bacteria
80 nitrogenase
81 uptake hydrogenase
82 fermentative hydrogenase
83 CO-linked hydrogenase
84 Lux.
85 Jung et al.
86 Rhodopseudomonas palustris P4
87 fermentative bacteria
88 syntrophic acetogens
89 homoacetogens
90 chemolithotrophically
91 chicken yard waste
92 Lars G. Ljungdahl
93 gram-positive
94 guanine
95 cytosine
96 flagella
97 sporulate
98 autotrophically
99 chemoorganotrophically
100 erythrose
101 threose
102 arabinose
103 wild
104 pathway
105 Wood-Ljungdahl
106 H.G. Wood
107 L.G. Ljungdahl
108 acetyl-CoA
109 formate dehydrogenase
110 tetrahydrofolate
111 10-formyl-H4folate synthetase
112 cyclohydrolase
113 5,10-methenyl-H4folate cyclohydrogenase
114 methylene-H4folate dehydrogenase
115 methylene-H4folate reductase
116 pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase
117 transmethylase
118 pyruvate synthase
119 phosphoenolpyruvate
120 phosphotransacetylase
121 acetate kinase
122 non-growth phase
123 solventogenic
124 acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
125 alcohol dehydrogenase
126 inoculum
127 reducing agents
128 Phillips et al.
129 yeast extract
130 Gaddy et al.
131 Klasson et al.
132 sporulation
133 cellobiose
134 rhamnose
135 galactose
136 resting cell
137 Cotter et al.
138 proteose peptone
139 beef extract
140 Maness and Weaver
141 poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate
142 Rhodobacter sp. CBS
143 Kundiyana et al.
144 cotton seed extract
145 Clostridium strain P11
146 aerobic carboxydotrophs
147 malate
148 glutamate
149 furmarate
150 succinate
151 Cotter et al.
152 Gaddy et al.
153 Bacillus simithii ERIH2
154 trypticase
155 tricarboxylic acid
156 Butyribacterium methylotrophicum
157 Worden et al.
158 Sakai et al.
159 Moorella sp. HUC22-1
160 reducing agent
161 redox potential
162 obligately anaerobic
163 cysteine-HCl
164 sodium sulfide
165 dithiothreitol
166 sodium thioglycolate
167 ascorbic acid
168 titanium (III)-citrate
169 potassium ferricyanide
170 methyl viologen
171 benzyl viologen
172 Klasson et al.
173 Sim et al.
174 C. aceticum
175 Hu et al.
176 Do et al.
177 metalloenzymes
178 Saxena and Tanner
179 Clostridium ragsdalei
180 Huhnke et al.
181 Adams et al.
182 Lewis et al.
183 Clostridium Carboxidivorans
184 inhibition
185 Ahmed et al.
186 Clostridium carboxidivorans P7T
187 tar
188 non-competitive inhibitor
189 Huhnke et al.
190 fluoroacetate
191 trifluoroacetate
192 Clostridium ragsdalei
193 microsparger
194 microbubbles
195 Ungerman and Heindel
196 dual Rushton-type
197 trickle-bed
198 bubble column
199 Gas recycle
200 back mixing
201 coalescence
202 Klasson et al.
203 Methanobacterium formicicum
204 Methanobacterium barkeri
205 packed bubble column
206 Immobilized cell reactor
207 xanthan gum
208 dextran
209 surfactant
210 bio-detergents
211 perfluorocarbon
212 co-solvents
213 Bacillus simithii ERIH2
214 Zhu et al.
215 nitrilpropyl
216 carboxylpropyl
217 mercaptopropyl
218 volumetric uptake
219 doubling time
220 Sim et al.
221 C. aceticum
222 cell lysis
223 Citrobacter sp. Y19
224 Jung et al.
225 cytochrome oxidase
226 Klasson et al.
227 Peptostreptococcus productus
228 Hursta and Lewis
229 Clostridium carboxidivorans
230 Clostridium ljungdahlii
231 American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)
232 Merck
233 Sigma-aldrich
234 Wolfe’s vitamin
235 reducing agent
236 serum bottle
237 crimper
238 culture tube
239 glove box
240 inoculation loop
241 flaky
242 batch
243 Tanner et al.
244 incubator shaker
245 internal standard
246 Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen
247 proton-motive force
248 continuous
249 mass flow controller
250 Tedlar bag
251 dilution rate
252 seed culture
253 filter holder
254 cuvette
255 reducing sugar
256 3, 5-dinitrosalycylic acid
257 sodium potassium tartrate
258 detector
259 packed column
260 carrier gas
261 injector
262 eppendorf tube
263 2-pentanone
264 Fisher
265 Malthus
266 growth associated product
267 Pearl and Reed
268 Logistic
269 Volterra
270 specific uptake rate
271 Embden-Meyerhof- Parnas pathway
272 glycolysis
273 anabolic
274 catabolic
275 pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase
276 phosphoenolpyruvate
277 conversion
278 threshold
279 acetyl-CoA:acetoacetyl-CoA transferase
280 acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase
281 acetyl-CoA synthase
282 acetoacetate decarboxylase
283 acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase
284 acetate kinase

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