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o found that Iranian learners encounter problems in all the language skills. This problem is partly caused by strong language interference between English and Farsi (Gazanfari, 2003). Research shows that some of the most problematic areas for Iranian students are comprehending and using English tenses (Keyvani, 1980), reporting speech in English (Yarmohammadi, 1995), and using English authentically (Karimnia & Salehi Zade, 2007).
Poor teaching materials and unsuitable instructional settings are responsible for some of the problems regarding ELT in Iran. In the academic setting, course books have been targets for criticism. Sadeghian (1996) believes that, “for certain methodological and ideological reasons, we water the content and language so much that what we teach has no educational values” (p. 1). Karimnia and Salehi Zade (2007), too, find school and university curricula inefficient and blame them as one of the reasons for students’ incompetency.
Inappropriate class size in the academic setting can also contribute to poor learning on the side of the students (Talebinezhad & Sadegi Benis, 2005). It is not surprising to find English classes with 20-30 students in schools and universities. It is clear that languages are learned through interaction, an element that is missing in the academic setting for the shortage of time and the size of the class.
Many believe that in the academic setting, instruction duration is barely enough (Fallahi, 2007; Karimnia & Salehi Zade, 2007; Talebinezhad & Sadegi Benis, 2005). As mentioned earlier in this section, learners in the academic setting study English for only 2 hours 15 minutes weekly at school and only 8 credit hours out of 140 credit hours at university.
Considering the fact that in an EFL setting the role of the teacher is magnified instructor-related problems are regarded more important than the other problems as teachers have always played more important roles than curricula or the learning environment. In the academic setting in Iran, many English teachers at school level are not competent enough to teach English (Talebinezhad & Sadegi Benis, 2005; Sadeghian, 1996). The majority of the teachers at schools use Farsi to teach vocabulary items or to explain grammar. The situation is not any better at universities. More often than not, even university professors teach students majoring in English in Farsi. Of course, “the university instructors are [competent], but the problem is that students are not at the level of proficiency to make the professors communicate with them in English” (Talebinezhad & Sadegi Benis, 2005, p. 94). This becomes a vicious circle as such graduates are the next generation school teachers (Sadeghian, 1996).
Instructor problems in private settings are of different nature. These teachers are usually very competent as most of them have learned English either in private language schools where the quality is much higher than academic schools (Talebinezhad & Sadegi Benis, 2005), or in an English speaking country where they have lived and/or studied for some years. One problem some of such teachers have is too much dependance on teaching methods that they have learned in the training courses or by means of which they have been taught when they were students. As it was mentioned earlier in this section, private language schools try to keep abreast of changes in the field of teaching English. Many language schools are now introducing the concepts of postmethod condition and reflective teaching in their teacher training programs.
Although private schools do face some shortcomings, they provide a better setting for research. Many scholars do not find research done on academic schools generalizable (Sadeghi, 2005; Talebinezhad & Sadegi Benis, 2005; Sadeghi, 2003; Seif, 1998). Talebinezhad and Sadegi Benis (2005) believe that “the real act of English learning takes place not in these educational centers [i.e. academic centers: schools and universities] but in non-academic [i.e. private] centers” (p. 87). They go on stating that “if you choose to use college students [as research population] in order to save time, effort, and money, you may be sacrificing the generalizability of your results, and the study will have less external validity” (p. 90).
For the reasons stated above, private schools were chosen as the research setting.
In Iranian language schools, teachers are treated as if they had similar psychological backgrounds and consequently, are expected to react in similar manner in all situations. Although educators in pre- and in-service programs tend to promote reflection among all teachers, they fail to inquire as some teachers do not respond adequately in practice. (Akbari, Behzadpoor, & Dadvand, 2010) What is more, novice teachers do not often feel adequately prepared for the challenges they face in their first years in the classroom, novice teachers experiencing an intricate transition from the teacher education institutions to life in real classroom.
One of the objectives of this research was to consider Iranian English teachers’ experience on their reflective practices on the one hand, and in their self-efficacy beliefs. A problem with this model of teacher education, however, is lack of evidence as to its effectiveness; there is not any published piece of research in applied linguistics (and even in mainstream education), to the best of our knowledge, to indicate that teacher experience will have any positive (or negative) effect on teacher’s reflection and teacher efficacy.

Self-efficacy has been associated with students’ own self-efficacy, greater levels of teacher planning and organization, teachers’ willingness to experiment with new methods, their persistence, their becoming less critical of students, and their greater enthusiasm for and commitment to teaching (Knoblauch & Hoy, 2008; Eun & Heining-Boynton, 2007; Barkley, 2006; Milner, 2002; Tschannen-Moran, Hoy, & Hoy, 1998).
Moreover, in the context of ELT in private language schools in Iran, the concept of reflective practice and teacher self-efficacy are relatively novel and very few language schools are incorporating the reflective aspect in their teacher training programs (Sadeghi, 2003).
Additionally, although reflective practice is encouraged in English teacher education programs in the West (Pacheco, 2005) and with less intensity in Iran, research indicating its impact on students or teachers is scarce (Akbari, 2007; Griffiths, 2000). What is more, the way to develop teacher self-efficacy, which has been shown in the literature to be positively effective on students and teachers, has not been paid due attention (Chan, Lau, Nie, Lim, & Hogan, 2008; Tschannen-Moran, Hoy, & Hoy, 1998). Furthermore, teachers’ reflectivity or self-efficacy in the context of ELT in private language schools in Iran has not received enough attention (Sadeghi, 2003). Last but not least the literature seems murky as it tries to find the relation between teacher’s experience and their efficacy beliefs.
Considering the aforementioned the purpose of this research study was to explore the relationship between novice and experienced ELT teachers in Iran, their reflectivity, and self-efficacy.
1.3 Statement of the Research Questions
1. Is there a significant relationship between EFL teachers’ reflection and their self- efficacy?
2. Is there a significant relationship between EFL novice teachers’ reflection and their self- efficacy?
3. Is there a significant relationship between EFL experienced teachers’ reflection and their self- efficacy?
4. Is there any significant relationship among the components of reflection and self-efficacy of EFL teachers?
5. Is there any significant relationship among the components of reflection and self-efficacy of novice EFL teachers?
6. Is there any significant relationship among the components of reflection and self-efficacy of experienced EFL teachers?
7. Is there a significant relationship among reflection and components of self-efficacy of EFL teachers?
8. Is there a significant relationship among reflection and components of self-efficacy of novice EFL teachers?
9. Is there a significant relationship among reflection and components of self-efficacy of experienced EFL teachers?
10. Is there a significant relationship among the components of reflection and the components of self-efficacy of EFL teachers?
11. Is there a significant relationship among the components of reflection and the components of self-efficacy of novice EFL teachers?
12. Is there a significant relationship among the components of reflection and the components of self-efficacy of experienced EFL teachers?
13. Is there any significant difference between the predictability of EFL teacher’s reflection and self-efficacy by their experience?
14. Is there a significant difference between experienced teachers’ self-efficacy and novice teachers’ self-efficacy?
15. Is there a significant difference between experienced teachers’ reflection and novice teachers’ reflection?

1.4 Statement of the Research Hypotheses
H01. There is no significant relationship between EFL teachers’ reflection and their self- efficacy.
H02. There is no significant relationship between EFL novice teachers’ reflection and their self- efficacy.
H03. There is no significant relationship between EFL experienced teachers’ reflection and their self- efficacy.
H04. There is no significant relationship among the components of reflection and self-efficacy of EFL teachers.
H05. There is no significant relationship among the components of reflection and self-efficacy of novice EFL teachers.
H06. There is no significant relationship among the components of reflection and self-efficacy of experienced EFL teachers.
H07. There is no significant relationship among reflection and components of self-efficacy of EFL teachers.
H08. There is

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