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whether professional activity is impartial, fair and respectful of persons or not. What is more, “critical reflection locates any analysis of personal action within wider socio-historical and politico-cultural contexts (Hatton & Smith, 1995, p. 35).
2.3.3.3.2 Anticipatory-Contemporaneous-Retrospective Reflection
Following Schon’s model of reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action, Van Manen proposed that reflection took place at three levels. “Reflection, as conceptualized by Van Manen, is a temporally distributed phenomenon involving the pre-active, interactive and postactive phases of teaching” (Conway, 2001, p. 90). Anticipatory reflection is “future-oriented reflection before action” (Conway, 2001, p. 90). Van Manen (1995) described this type of reflection as the “immediate reflective awareness that characterizes the active and dynamic process of a … routine lesson” (p. 34). He argued that it is “governed by insight while relying on feeling” (p. 44). In practice, before they start teaching, teachers “are encouraged to think about what they want to teach and why, to plan lessons thoroughly and anticipate problems that may arise” (Griffiths, 2000, p. 545). “In contrast, contemporaneous reflection in situations allows for a ‘stop and think’ kind of action that may differ markedly from the more immediate ‘reflective’ awareness that characterizes, for example, the active and dynamic process of class discussion, a lecture, a conflict situation, a monitoring activity, a one-on-one, a routine lesson, and so forth (Van Manen, 1995, p. 34). Retrospective reflection, like Schon’s reflection-on-action, is on past experiences. After the lesson, teachers are encouraged “to evaluate how the lesson went, to think about what the children learned and what they as teachers could have done better, and to consider how to learn from their experience in order to improve their practice next time” (Griffiths, 2000, p. 545).
2.3.3.4 Zeichner and Liston’s Ethical Reflection
Zeichner and Liston, influenced by the work of Dewey, Habermas, and Van Manen (El-Dib, 2007; Korthagen, 2001a), saw reflection as comprised of two levels.
The first level is routine action, which is guided by outside authority without giving thought to justifications for the actions taken. The second level is reflective action, which is inspired by the concept of a teacher as a moral craftsperson who is concerned with the ethical issues involved in carrying out certain actions. (El-Dib, 2007, p. 27)
Within their ideology, “the emphasis is on the degree to which teachers critically reflect on the moral, ethical, and instrumental values embedded in their everyday thinking and practice” (Korthagen, 2001a). They “believe that reflective teachers must seek to find where and how their personal theories originated and subsequently question those theories, especially as they influence practice” (Farrell, 2004, p. 21).

2.3.3.5 Jay and Johnson’s Descriptive, Comparative, Critical Reflection
In Jay and Johnson’s (2002) typology, reflection was comprised of three levels: descriptive reflection, comparative reflection, and critical reflection (Farrell, 2004). In portraying the typology proposed by Jay and Johnson, Akbari (2007) states,
The descriptive stage is the problem-setting stage during which the teacher determines which aspect of the classroom or her practice should form the core of her reflective attention. The second stage, i.e., comparison, is the phase during which the teacher starts “thinking about the matter for reflection from a number of different frameworks” (p. 78). It is during the comparative stage that the practitioner tries to make sense of other people’s viewpoints, or develops a new frame of reference (Schon, 1983) which will enable her to comprehend viewpoints which may run counter to the ones she holds… The last stage of reflection is what is termed as the critical stage. At this stage, the reflective practitioner evaluates different choices and alternatives and integrates the newly-acquired information with what she already knows. It is, in fact, the decision making stage resulting from careful analysis of the situation and deliberation. (p. 195)
2.3.3.6 Akbari’s Model of English Teacher’s reflection
Prior to proposing their teacher’s reflection model, Akbari et al. (2010) conducted a comprehensive literature review to evaluate available models of teacher’s reflection and their components, and to verify all the attempts that investigated reflection based on the processes or the stages it entailed. The aim of this review was to see what types of constructs and behaviors were typically categorized as reflective practice (Akbari, Behzadpoor, & Dadvand, 2010). The results yielded “more than six hundred reflective categories and behaviors” (p. 213). After discarding the overlapping items, they translated the remaining 302 items “into actual instances of reflective behavior” (p. 213). In the Final stage, they grouped all the developed items and found themes or commonalities among them. The results were the following five overarching components of reflection: practical, cognitive, affective, meta-cognitive, and critical.
Practical element consists of those activities that comprise the actual act of reflection by the practitioner. Keeping journals, writing lesson reports, conducting surveys, audio and video recordings of the classes, and observation are examples of such actions (Richards & Lockhart, 1999; Murphy 2001; Farrell, 2004; Richards & Farrell, 2005; cited in Akbari et al., 2010).
Cognitive element includes all the attempts that the teacher makes in order to achieve professional development. Doing action research; attending seminars, conferences, and workshops;and reading professional literature are some of the activities done to reflect cognitively (Farrell, 2004; Richards & Farrell, 2005; cited in Akbari et al., 2010)
Learner element (affective) is concerned with reflecting on learners’ emotional responses to the lessons, their learning, and their background (Pollard et al. 2006; Hillier, 2005; Pacheco, 2005; Richards and Farrell, 2005Richards and Lockhart, 1999; Zeichner and Liston, 1996; cited in Akbari et al., 2010).
Meta-Cognitive element comprises teachers and their reflections on their own beliefs and personality, the way they define their practice, their own emotional make up, etc. (Akbari, Behzadpoor, & Dadvand, 2010). As Akbari (2007) states, “Teachers’ personality, and more specifically their affective make up, can influence their tendency to get involved in reflection and will affect their reaction to their own image resulting from reflection” (p. 10). This aspect is often neglected in the proposed reflective models (Pollard et al. 2006; Hillier, 2005; Richards and Lockhart, 1999; Stanley, 1998; Zeichner and Liston, 1996; cited in Akbari et al., 2010).
Finally, the Critical element includes items dealing with the socio-political aspects of pedagogy. Examples for this category are reflecting on issues such as race, gender and social class (Jay and Johnson, 2001; Bartlett ,1997; Zeichner & Liston, 1996; Day, 1993; cited in Akbari et al., 2010).
2.3.3.6.1 Practical Reflection
Practical reflection consists of a set of techniques incorporated to encourage teachers reflect on their actions (Akbari et al, 2010). Akbari et al. (2010) report the practical component including
those items that deal with the tools and the actual practice of reflection. Different tools/ procedures for the reflective practice include ‘journal writing,’ ‘lesson reports,’ ‘surveys and questionnaires,’ ‘audio and video recordings,’ ‘observation,’ ‘action research,’ ‘teaching portfolios,’ ‘group discussions,’ ‘analyzing critical incidents’ (Farrell, 2004; Murphy, 2001; Richards and Farrell, 2005; Richards and Lockhart, 1994). (p. 214)
Yayli (2009), too, believes that practical reflection “could be achieved through such sources as reflective journals, learning logs, lesson reports, autobiographies, collaborative diary keeping, audio and video recording, teacher narratives, portfolios, observation and action research (p. 1821). In the literature, the most popular methods of promoting practical reflection include keeping journals, audio/video recording of the class, using surveys and questionnaires, keeping web-blogs, and peer-observation (El-Dib, 2007; Farrell, 2004; Zeichner & Liston, 1996; Richards & Lockhart, 1996). What follows is a set of techniques that make up practical reflection.

Keeping Journals
Many teacher educators have emphasized the importance of keeping journals in promoting practical reflection (Yayli, 2009; Lee I. , 2008; Isikoglu, 2007; Davis, 2006; Richards & Lockhart, 1996). Lee I. (2008) finds journals as “a birthplace for creative and critical thinking” (p. 118). She states that
Journals can activate teacher candidates’ thinking and facilitate meaning making during the learning process (Cole, Raffier, Rogan, & Schleicher, 1998), help them identify variables that are important to them, serve as a means of generating questions and hypotheses about teaching and learning (Richards & Ho, 1998), and increase their awareness about the way a teacher teaches and the way a student learns (Burton & Carroll, 2001). (pp. 117-118)
Following a research using journals on pre-service teachers, Isikoglu (2007) concluded that the pre-service teachers demonstrated three stages of reflection: routine, technical, and critical. She believed that the pre-service teachers were in the process of professional development and change, resulting from keeping journals. She then suggested that teacher education institutions promote the reflective journal keeping during the practicum.
Davis (2006) believes that “reflective journals are one of many approaches for encouraging written reflection. Teacher educators and researchers use reflective journals for two broad, non-mutually

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