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Yost found the results surprising. Data analysis revealed a group of teachers with the same philosophy, methods of teaching, and managing of behavior. Based on the results, she proposed that successful field and student teaching experiences that are connected to coursework, build teachers’ confidence and self-efficacy and thus encourage a higher level of competence in their first year of teaching. What is more, she suggested that critical reflection as a problem-solving tool empowers teachers to cope with the challenges that they encounter in their first few years of teaching.
The study could have resulted in findings that are more generalizable had the researcher considered the following observations. There are two problems concerning the participants. First, the study suffers from the scantiness of participants. The results were obtained through a study on eight participants. In fact, Yost had started the research on 10 participants, but as the study had been set out to consummate in four years, she should have taken participant mortality more seriously. Participant mortality and the duration of the study are correlated (Best & Kahn, 2005). The second problem concerns selection of participants. Yost chose her participants from a volunteer group of teachers. In studies where the quality of participants’ work is under scrutiny, choosing volunteer participants might not result in very reliable outcomes (Best & Kahn, 2005), as those who know they will act in an acceptable manner will volunteer.
The other research reviewed was conducted by Waller (2009). To examine the relationships among teachers’ self-reflective practices, efficacy levels, openness to change, experience, and use of student response system (SRS) technology, she conducted a correlational research study. Her sample consisted of 481 teachers from public schools in North Carolina and Tennessee. To measure self-efficacy, Waller used the short form of Tschannen-Moran & Hoy (2001), and for assessing reflection, she employed the Groningen Reflection Ability Scale (GRAS) developed by Aukes, et al. (2007). The original scale contained 23 items on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from ‘totally disagree’ to ‘totally agree’ and was worded for medical students. For the study, Waller reduced the questionnaire items to 19.
She found that all correlations among the variables were positive. All were significant with the exception of the correlation between self-efficacy and SRS use. The study finds that increasing self-reflection opportunities is positively associated with an increase in self-efficacy. Although the study confirmed a relationship between self-efficacy and reflection, more research is needed in the context of ELT, as Waller (2009) studied on public school teachers.
To sum up, Korthagen and Wubbles (1995) found out that reflective teachers had stronger feelings of self-efficacy. However, their study was on math teachers. In addition, they used Rotter’s efficacy model in their theoretical framework (see section 2.3.1.1), and Rotter’s efficacy model is different from self-efficacy model as proposed by Bandura (Bandura, 1997). Norton (1997), too, studied the relationship between locus of control and reflection. She failed to establish a relationship between locus of control and reflection, while she had very few (n=12) participants in her study. In another study, while Yost (2006) found self-efficacy and reflective teaching correlated, her study was concluded based on very few (n=8) participants as participant mortality had reduced the number of the participants of the study. Lastly, Waller (2009) studied the relationship between self-efficacy and reflective teaching among a few more constructs, and she found them positively correlated.
2.4 Experienced and Novice Teachers
Novice teachers are relatively easily defined as those with little or no classroom experience. They are often student teachers or teachers who have less than 2 years of teaching experience (Gatbonton, 2008). Novice teachers always find themselves in a paradoxical situation – they are expected to demonstrate abilities that they do not necessarily yet have, and what is more, the work of teaching itself, being “complex, uncertain and full of dilemmas”, sharpens the paradox (Feiman-Nemser 2001). Because of these the first year is crucial and at the same time problematic (Wang, Odell and Schwille 2008). Indeed, the initial year of employment has been recognized as an “important segment of a beginning teachers career” (McCormack & Thomas 2003: 125) and has also attracted much academic research. In research on novice teachers, much attention has been given to the problems encountered in the first year of teaching (see, for example, Veenman, 1984; 6 Olson and Osborne, 1991; Stanulis, Fallona and Pearson, 2002; Fottland, 2004). This has included problems related to classroom management, socializing with other teachers, adapting to the school context and curriculum requirements. Non-native speaking (NNS) teachers face similar problems (Farrell, 2003). However, they also encounter additional challenges in terms of language skills and (linguistic) competence (Liu, 1999; Arva and Medgyes, 2000; Tsui, 2007). Although novice teachers’ problems are highly important, very little research has been conducted on novice teachers’ beliefs about teaching and learning, even less so on non-native English language teachers’ beliefs.
Novice ESL teachers paid more attention to unacceptable mannerisms and more concerned with maintaining the flow of activities, that is, discipline and authority are their primary concerns. Studies also suggest that Fuller’s (1969) stages are applicable in the context of foreign language education since teaching in this respect also starts with trivial concerns of novice teachers and shifts to a holistic view through time.
Each novice teacher is expected to go through an adjustment period in which they enhance their teaching performance and contextualize their knowledge in relation to specific situations.
The metaphors and/or images novices use to describe their teaching primarily reflect beliefs, which derive from their experiences as students.
Deeper representations about teaching and learning, Problem solving skills, decision making, and perception of classroom situations are all of significant in the realm of differences between novice and experienced teachers.
In addition, experienced teachers are more adept at monitoring student problems and assessing their level of understanding and progress, and they provide much more relevant, useful feedback. Developing and testing hypotheses about learning difficulties or instructional strategies, being more automatic, having more high respect for students, having more positive influences on students’ achievement are other skills of experienced teachers in comparison with novice.
The literature on novice teachers supports the view that teachers in their first year of teaching are initially concerned with self-adequacy (e.g. classroom control, acceptance by students), then concerned with students (e.g. how much students have mastered the given content) (Fuller, 1969). During the initial years of teaching, novices struggle to survive in their work environment. Studies have indicated that several possible reasons for encountering problems were due to not being supported by colleagues, classroom management problems, insufficient training and mismatch between teachers’ own beliefs and school expectation.
The identification of experienced teachers is more complex. Teachers and administrators might define experienced teachers as those who have taught for many years, are able to motivate students and hold their attention, know how to manage their classroom effectively, and can change course in the middle of a lesson to take advantage of unforeseen opportunities to enhance student learning.
In the literature, however, the definition of experienced teachers seems to hinge principally on the number of years taught; time-related criteria can range from 2 years (Texas Administrative Code) or 3 years (Bastick, 2002) to 9 years or more (Atay, 2008; Bivona, 2002). Most commonly, studies identify experienced teachers as those who have approximately 5 years or more of classroom experience (Gatbonton, 1999; Martin, Yin, & Mayall, 2006; Richards, Li, & Tang, 1998; Tsui, 2003, 2005). Number of years teaching, however, does not guarantee expertise as a teacher. Some experienced teachers may be considered expert, while others remain “experienced non-experts” (Tsui, 2003, p. 3). While little research has been done on expertise in teaching ESL, programs have used a combination of more than 5 years of teaching experience, recognition from administrators, and high student achievement to identify their own expert ESL teachers (Tsui, 2003).
(Tsui, 2003) compared novice and expert teachers in the preactive and interactive phases of teaching. She believes that in the preactive phase, expert teachers differ from novice ones in four main characteristics: 1- In the planning process, expert teachers exercise more autonomy but novice teachers’ planning is limited to rules and models. 2- The planning of expert teachers is more efficient than novice teachers; however, expert teachers spend much less time planning. 3- Expert teachers are much more flexible in planning because they can change their plans according to context. 4- Expert teachers use a rich and integrated knowledge base. In the interactive phase also expert and novice teachers differ from each other (Tsui, 2003) from three aspects. The first aspect is efficiency in processing of information in the classroom. Expert teachers have the ability to transmit information. The second point is that expert teachers are able to select information in processing. The third point is that expert teachers consider students’ need and respond to a variety of

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